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44%的中奖者五年内都破产了,为什么?

时间:2016-01-19  fortunechina  

  很遗憾,你没有在美国创纪录的16亿美元强力球(Powerball)乐透大奖中分得一杯羹。不过,如果中奖者是你的话,你会如何用这些钱呢?

  这正是强力球的三位获奖者现在需要自问的问题。这三位分别来自加利福尼亚州、田纳西州和佛罗里达州的幸运儿,将共享这16亿美元的大奖,每个人都在一夜之间成为了亿万富翁。还有另外80多个幸运儿也获得了100万美元以上的奖金。

  这些人接下来的做法,将决定这笔意外收入究竟会改善他们的生活,还是让他们陷入痛苦。

  确实,彩票运营机构Camelot Group在2015年的一项研究表明,赢得乐透大奖的人,有44%都在五年之内破产。认证机构Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards则表示,有几乎三分之一的人宣告破产,也就是说他们的情况比一夜暴富前更加糟糕。其他研究还表明中奖者往往会疏远家庭和朋友,抑郁、滥用毒品和酒精、离婚和自杀的概率也要高于一般美国人。

  难怪有个关于理财规划的笑话说,如果你有敌人,就给他们买彩票吧。

  究竟是哪里出了问题?

  首先,让我们把彩票看作现金,拥有它的人就是财富的所有者。所以,在你买了彩票之后,在上面签名很重要,然后你需要把它放在一个安全的地方。否则,彩票就可能丢失或遭窃。

  其次,在你中大奖之后,首先要通知的是财务顾问和房地产律师——而不是你的配偶、母亲或是最好的朋友,几乎每个中奖者都是这么做的。

  尽管一些彩票的委员会并不公布中奖者的姓名,但如今的社交媒体让隐姓埋名变得不太可能。只要你开始穿戴漂亮的珠宝,买了一身新行头或是一辆昂贵的汽车,或是给了谁钱,你就暴露了。父母、兄弟姐妹、朋友、邻居、同事、慈善机构和陌生人——所有人都想从你这里拿到钱。许多人会请求你,另一些人则会用要求的口吻,他们说如果他们中了奖,也会给你分钱的。负疚和被操控的感觉将会迅速滋生。你还会收到许多投资建议:开个餐厅!买个汽车经销店!投资油井!……

  对金钱的要求和需求就是你破产的开端。这就是为什么你需要一个财务顾问,来作为你的缓冲。当有人来要钱时,你只需要说:“联系我的顾问。”归咎于财务顾问——这么做能帮你维持人际关系(以及你的理智)。

  第三,你会意识到这笔飞来横财比看起来少得多。有个说法是这16亿美元中有45%是用来交税的,实际情况其实比这糟得多。如果你给了最好的朋友1亿美元,你(而不是你朋友)还要交赠与税。所以,除非你有非常好的缴税或财产规划的建议,不然你最好把所有钱留下,或是捐给慈善机构,否则90%的奖金恐怕都将上交给联邦政府或州政府,以及充当赠与税。这就是几乎你所有的奖金。

  如果你想要奖金给你带来想象中的快乐,就停止幻想,仔细考虑管理财富的现实吧。(财富中文网)

  里克•埃德尔曼是投资顾问公司Edelman Financial Services LLC的主席和首席执行官。他是一名投资顾问代表,通过该公司提供咨询服务,同时还是Sanders Morris Harris Inc.的注册委托人,并通过其发布证券。埃德尔曼的公司是少有的三次进入世界500强的公司之一。Edelman Financial Services LLC提供咨询服务。Sanders Morris Harris Inc.则提供有价证券。后者是前者的附属代理商和经销商,也是金融业监管局(FINRA)和证券投资者保护公司(SIPC)的会员。

  译者:严匡正

So you didn’t win a share of Wednesday’s record $1.6 billion Powerball lottery prize. But what would you do with all of that cash if you did win?

That’s what Powerball’s three winning ticket-holders (in California, Tennessee, and Florida) are asking themselves right now. They’ll share the $1.6 billion prize, each becoming instant centi-millionaires. More than 80 others won $1 million or more.

What all of these folks do next will determine whether their windfalls improve their lives—or leave them suffering.

Indeed, 44% of those who have ever won large lottery prizes were broke within five years, according to a 2015 Camelot Group study. The Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards says nearly a third declared bankruptcy—meaning they were worse off than before they became rich. Other studies show that lottery winners frequently become estranged from family and friends, and incur a greater incidence of depression, drug and alcohol abuse, divorce, and suicide than the average American.

No wonder financial planners joke that if you have enemies, give ’em a lottery ticket.

So where does it all go wrong?

First, realize that tickets are like cash: Whoever has possession is the owner. So it’s important to sign your ticket as soon as you buy it, and then store it in a secure place. Otherwise, you run the risk that the ticket could get lost or stolen.

Second, the first person you should tell after you win is a financial advisor and an estate attorney—not your spouse, mom, or best friend, like nearly every lottery winner does.

Although some lottery commissions let winners remain anonymous, today’s social media world makes that virtually impossible. As soon as you start wearing nice jewelry, buying a new wardrobe or an expensive car, or giving cash to anyone, you’ll be outed. And everyone—parents, siblings, friends, neighbors, coworkers, charities, and strangers—will want some of your money. Many will ask for it and some will demand it, arguing that they would’ve shared their winnings with you if they had won. The guilt trips and manipulation will start quickly. Expect also to get plenty of investment pitches: Open a restaurant! Buy a car dealership! Put money into an oil well!

Requests and demands for money is the start of your path to ruin. That’s why you need a financial advisor—to serve as your buffer. When someone asks for cash, “Call my advisor” is all you have to say. Blaming an advisor will help you preserve your relationships (and your sanity).

Third, realize that your newfound pile of cash is far smaller than it seems. Forget that nonsense that taxes will eat about 45% of the $1.6 billion. It’s far worse than that. If you give your best friend $100 million, you (not the friend) will be subject to the gift tax. So unless you get very good tax and estate planning advice, keep all of the money or donate it all to charity, as you could very well lose 90% of the prize to federal and state income and gift taxes. That’s almost all of your winnings.

If you want your prize to produce the happiness you assume it will provide, stop dreaming and start thinking about the realities of managing a fortune.

Ric Edelman, chairman and CEO of Edelman Financial Services LLC, a registered investment advisor, is an investment advisor representative who offers advisory services through EFS and is a registered principal of and offers securities through SMH. His is among the few companies that have made the Inc. 500 list three times. Advisory Services offered through Edelman Financial Services LLC. Securities offered through Sanders Morris Harris Inc., an affiliated broker/dealer, member FINRA/SIPC.

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